CCB koryguje raporty dotyczące obligacji Blockchain… i mówi BTC z wielkim grubym „nie”

Kilka dni po tym, jak media z całego świata doniosły, że oddział China Construction Bank (CCB) w Labuan wyemitował pierwsze w kraju obligacje RMB oparte na blockchainie, bank, o którym mowa, zaprzeczył prawdziwości raportów, dodając że nie ma powiązań z „kryptowalutami, w tym bitcoinem ”.

Chociaż bank nie zaprzecza istnieniu obligacji ani ich powiązaniu z ich emisją, chciał wskazać, że jest jedynie „głównym organizatorem” i „głównym doradcą” projektu, a faktyczna emisja odbywa się za pośrednictwem firma o nazwie Longbond i zbywalna na giełdzie Fusang .

Oddział banku w Labuan ogłosił na swojej stronie internetowej CCB Malaysia :

„Oddział Profit Revolution jest emitentem obligacji. […] Oddział NIE akceptuje kryptowalut, w tym bitcoinów, do rozliczenia w żadnej ze swoich transakcji bankowych. ”

Labuan to raj podatkowy w Malezji.

Emisja – która ma nastąpić od dzisiaj – trafiła na pierwsze strony gazet na całym świecie. A nabywcy obligacji rzeczywiście będą mogli kupować obligacje o wartości 100 USD i więcej za pomocą USD lub BTC – tylko nie za pośrednictwem samego banku, ale raczej giełdy, z którą jest partnerem. Łączna docelowa wielkość programu to 3 mld USD.

Ale serwisy informacyjne na całym świecie – w tym wiele w Chinach – zdawały się wywnioskować bank, błędnie podały, że emitentem był sam bank centralny.

Wśród nich gustuje Financial Times, który biegł z nagłówkiem: „China Construction Bank wydania morskiej więź opartą na blockchain”

Zgodnie z wydaniem z 11 listopada przez Fusang, Longbond jest spółką akcyjną i „podmiotem specjalnego przeznaczenia w zakresie sekurytyzacji, utworzonym wyłącznie w celu emitowania obligacji cyfrowych i zdeponowania wpływów w CCB Labuan”. Giełda dodała, że ​​CCB Labuan będzie działać jako „sponsor aukcji dla umowy”.

W ogłoszeniu nie podano, kto założył Longbond. Cryptonews.com skontaktowało się z CCB w celu uzyskania komentarza.

Namiętny charakter odmowy CCB wydaje się wskazywać, że podczas gdy zapał do wszystkiego, co związane z kryptowalutami, pozostaje w Chinach niebotyczny, banki i inne duże firmy wciąż boją się wywołać gniew Pekinu – który we wrześniu uchwalił niemal całkowite stłumienie kryptowalut 2017 i obecnie pracuje nad swoim cyfrowym juanem.

SheeldMarket labeled prime broker by the AMF and supported by Tim Draper

SheeldMarket is a French startup that aggregates marketplaces on a single platform.

The Bitcoin Evolution recently obtained the registration of its activity with the AMF.

Tim Draper financially supports the French project via Draper Dragon.

SheeldMarket is a French startup that aggregates marketplaces on a single platform. The company recently obtained the registration of its activity with the AMF.

SheeldMarket was accelerated at UC Berkeley, before joining the Agoranov incubator in Paris. In May 2020, the company raised € 1 million from French (Kima Ventures, Axeleo) and American (Draper Dragon) funds. In June, SheelMarket launched a trial phase with an American fund to validate its technology.

What needs does SheelMarket meet?

The cryptocurrency market is fragmented and not ready to welcome institutional investors. Indeed, there are currently more than 50 marketplaces on which to buy and sell cryptocurrencies. Each has its price, its account opening process, and above all an obligation to fund this account in full before being able to place orders. In order to get the best price and be sure to process your entire position, you should therefore be connected to all platforms at the same time, which represents a considerable cost and workload for an investment fund.

SheelMarket has developed cash management algorithms and process, customers can get the best market prices with just one click. In addition, customers‘ buying and selling intentions are blindly linked in an encrypted dark pool before being transmitted.

Registration with the AMF

Since the end of October, SheeldMarket has been registered with the AMF as a Service Provider on Digital Assets (PSAN) for the custody of digital assets and the purchase / sale of digital assets. Famous investor and billionaire Tim Draper seems to be enjoying the news on Twitter.

Exchange becomes fourth structure after Coinhouse , StackinSat, and LGO Exchange to be registered as a PSAN

Oliver Yates, President of SheeldMarket, said:

This registration represents an important milestone for our company and the crypto ecosystem in Europe, as there is currently no similar solution that complies with regulations for European investors.

JPMorgan: Gli afflussi istituzionali Bitcoin in ottobre sono „impressionanti“.

Il principale gestore di fondi Bitcoin e cripto-asset Grayscale ha visto un forte afflusso di investimenti negli ultimi mesi.

Gli analisti di JP Morgan pensano che questo possa essere un segno che la Bitcoin sta agendo come alternativa all’oro.
JP Morgan ha osservato che, mentre l’afflusso di capitali per gli ETF in oro ha subito un rallentamento, Grayscale sta vedendo esplodere le sue partecipazioni Bitcoin.

Gli afflussi istituzionali di Bitcoin sono impressionanti

Il principale gestore di fondi Bitcoin e cripto-asset Grayscale ha visto un forte afflusso di investimenti negli ultimi mesi.

Gli analisti di JP Morgan hanno recentemente pubblicato un rapporto che riconosce queste tendenze. Gli analisti hanno notato che i dati di ottobre di Grayscale, in particolare per quanto riguarda il Grayscale Bitcoin Trust, suggeriscono che BTC potrebbe agire sempre più come alternativa all’oro. L’oro è stato a lungo visto come la tradizionale copertura contro l’inflazione, anche se, secondo JP Morgan, la Bitcoin sta guadagnando terreno:
Ricariche e giri gratis disponibili ogni giorno, per ogni giocatore, in mBitcasino Crypto Autumn Bonanza! Gioca ora!

„Ciò che rende la traiettoria di flusso di ottobre per la @Grayscale #Bitcoin Trust ancora più impressionante è il suo contrasto con la traiettoria di flusso equivalente per #gold ETFs, che nel complesso ha visto modesti deflussi da metà ottobre…“.

Grafico delle azioni in circolazione del Grayscale Bitcoin Trust e del totale delle riserve auree note dell’ETF di JP Morgan e Bloomberg Finance

Questo spostamento della narrazione dall’oro come copertura alla Bitcoin come copertura è stato innescato dai commenti di importanti investitori e analisti.

Paul Tudor Jones, un investitore miliardario di Wall Street, ha recentemente dichiarato di ritenere che il Bitcoin sia il migliore commercio di inflazione del mondo.

„La ragione per cui ho raccomandato il Bitcoin è perché era uno dei trades dell’inflazione, come l’oro, come i breakevens TIPS, come il rame, come l’essere una lunga curva dei rendimenti e sono giunto alla conclusione che il Bitcoin sarebbe stato il migliore trades dell’inflazione“.

Una crisi di liquidità sul fronte della vendita

Gli analisti pensano che questa grande attività di acquisto da parte dei trader istituzionali causerà una crisi di „liquidità dal lato della vendita“.

„Light“,“ un importante trader cripto-asset, ha recentemente commentato che le istituzioni potrebbero scatenare questa crisi:

„Molta della pressione sugli acquisti che in queste ultime settimane si sta facendo concorrenza per stringere la liquidità del sell-side di BTC viene dalle istituzioni. Stanno acquistando da persone che sono nella fase di incredulità“.

Notizie recenti indicano che questo volume di acquisti è presente. MicroStrategy ha acquistato 425 milioni di dollari di Bitcoin in due mesi, mentre Square ha acquistato 50 milioni di dollari di BTC per il proprio bilancio. Ci sono state anche prove aneddotiche condivise riguardo a grandi attori istituzionali che hanno acquistato la principale valuta crittografica tramite scambi a pronti.

Ciò che è importante in questa presunta „crisi“ è che gli analisti si aspettano che il volume degli acquisti aumenti ancora più drammatici man mano che la vendita si riduce.

Questi analisti guardano in particolare agli investitori al dettaglio, che devono ancora rientrare nello spazio di criptovaluta en-masse da quando hanno lasciato il mercato dell’orso nel 2018. Gli investitori al dettaglio sono stati ciò che ha scatenato il rally di Bitcoin a 20.000 dollari nel 2017.

Buying opportunity? – Why the allegations against BitMEX won’t hurt Bitcoin

The 4% downturn in Bitcoin after the allegations against BitMEX became known is probably not a long-term threat to the price.

Bitcoin ( BTC ) suddenly slipped yesterday evening after it became known that the American Derivatives Trading Authority (CFTC) had brought charges against BitMEX . The crypto exchange is charged with promoting money laundering and illegal derivatives trading.

The gravity of the allegations became all the more apparent when Samuel Reed, one of the co-founders of BitMEX, was arrested

BitMEX was the market-leading trading platform for Bitcoin futures for a long time, before the so-called „Black Thursday“ intervened in March 2020, which resulted in massive sales valued at 1 billion US dollars and lowered the Bitcoin rate to 3,750 US dollars . Because of this, competitors like Binance Futures and ByBit were able to secure large market shares.

Crypto experts had long rumored that sooner or later there would be allegations against BitMEX, but Reed’s arrest comes as a surprise to them too. The shock also made itself felt on the price development of Bitcoin, as it fell by 4.11% after the news became known. As a result, the crypto market leader slipped from $ 10,833 to $ 10,437.

However, there are several factors that suggest that Bitcoin will recover from this horror, at least in the short term. The main reasons are the briefness of the downturn it triggered, Bitcoin’s past behavior in legal disputes and strong support at $ 10,500 that is currently holding.

Is the pain temporary?

The Bitcoin rate crashed more than 4% within two hours. Such a drastic downturn in a very short time is unusual and proof that the BitMEX report can be seen as a trigger.

Usually, when Bitcoin falls with such intensity, it is followed by a kind of domino effect that results in liquidations. Since most traders in the futures market trade with leverage, i.e. a financial leverage effect, this creates a downward spiral that closes more and more long positions and pushes the price further.

At the moment, however, the open interest, a key figure that quantifies the total value of the open positions in the market, is relatively low and the trading volume in the futures market is significantly lower than usual. Accordingly, there are fewer traders who trade with excessive leverage and from hit a downturn dramatically.

Government action is not a long-term threat

In recent years, the crypto industry has repeatedly suffered severe setbacks from decisions by governments, parliaments and authorities, but as crypto market researcher Vijay Boyapati confirms, Bitcoin has repeatedly recovered from this.

The allegations against BitMEX could have negative effects in the short term, but according to Boyapati it is unlikely that an effect will also be noticeable in the long term:

“Bitcoin has always responded negatively to severe government action. Historically, however, this has always been a good buying opportunity. The allegations against BitMEX are no exception. „

Bitcoin (BTC) Consolidates, Bounces To Key $ 10,500 Level

After a sharp and rapid fall last week, Bitcoin has stabilized and experienced several days of consolidation between $ 10,000 and $ 10,500. What could he have in store for us in the next few days?

Despite a sharp drop last week, Bitcoin (BTC) still manages to hold above many important supports

First, we will note the rebound of Bitcoin on the level of 10,000 $. Much more than a symbolic number, the level of $ 10,000 is a major technical support that can be found on a monthly, weekly or daily basis. No wonder then that the price is based on it to bounce back.

On a weekly basis, we will also note a rebound on the RSI 53 level. This level is extremely interesting on Bitcoin, because it is a real pivot level .

During the previous speculative bubble, the departure of the bullrun was marked by the overcoming of this resistance. We will especially notice that afterwards, for more than two and a half years, the RSI Weekly never went back below!

The RSI level 53 is therefore a key support level for https://bitcoin-circuit.io/. It will imperatively be necessary to hold it in the weeks to come and to accentuate the rebound underway. Otherwise, we will have to expect hectic weeks and postpone the hypothesis of a departure of bullrun .

In Daily, we find a double level of support supporting the rebound of Bitcoin. First, the horizontal level of $ 10,000 , also marking the high of the large range dating from the start of this summer. Second, the upward trend slant that supported the price during this same consolidation is again in contact with the price.

For the moment, these two supports have played their role perfectly, hence the current rebound in Bitcoin

Unfortunately, this rejection of the $ 10,000 can only be seen as a simple rebound. Indeed, if on weekly and monthly scales the trend remains bullish, this is not the case in Daily.

Since breaking down the consolidation zone between $ 11,000 and $ 12,100, Bitcoin has returned to a daily downtrend.

Even though the price practically fetched the theoretical target of the reversal pattern, that does not automatically mean that the decline is over.

Following the validated shoulder-head-shoulder and the $ 11,000 breakout , the price is in a downtrend. For the moment, nothing calls into question this downward trend. This will unfortunately be the case as long as there is no more evidence in favor of a bullish reversal, such as a reversal pattern, a crossing of moving averages or a rally on other indicators.

Today everything continues to point down on the daily scale. Momentum indicators support this downtrend, with the RSI moving for example in a bearish channel and showing no divergence or potential signs of reversal.

We also note that the price is stumbling on the major resistance of $ 10,500 , reinforced by the bottom of the Ichimoku cloud.

In short: Bitcoin is still in a downtrend on a Daily, and despite the many supports acting on the price, it is likely to see a further decline in the coming days.

BITCOIN HA APPENA INFRANTO UNA LINEA DI TENDENZA CRUCIALE MENTRE I TORI PUNTANO A 12.000 DOLLARI

  • Bitcoin e l’intero mercato dei crittografi hanno mostrato segni di forza negli ultimi giorni.
  • La BTC si è spostata con fermezza nella regione da metà a più di 11.000 dollari, con i tori che ora cercano di raccogliere abbastanza forza da spingerla verso la sua alta resistenza temporale a 12.000 dollari.
  • Il fatto che questo livello sia sfruttato o meno a breve termine dovrebbe offrire alcuni spunti significativi sulla sua tendenza a breve termine
  • Gli analisti puntano ora verso una recente rottura della linea di tendenza come uno sviluppo positivo per la crittovaluta
  • Ha anche potuto recuperare la sua media mobile di 200 giorni dopo una breve pausa sotto di essa, segno che il mercato dei tori va ancora forte.

Bitcoin e il mercato dei crittografi hanno avuto un fine settimana positivo, con la valuta crittografica di riferimento in grado di salire leggermente più in alto, mentre i grandi altcoin come Ethereum iniziano a fare il rally.

Questo ha creato un vento di coda che ha sollevato gli altcoin più piccoli significativamente più in alto, con alcuni guadagni parabolici di clock durante gli ultimi giorni.

Gli analisti notano che questo bullismo potrebbe persistere a breve termine, dato che il recente ritiro di Bitcoin Billionaire l’ha fatto scendere al di sotto di un livello che definisce la tendenza solo per un breve periodo. Da allora è stato recuperato dai tori.

L’ultima spinta verso l’alto ha anche permesso a BTC di rompere al di sopra di un livello tecnico che aveva soppresso la sua azione di prezzo. Gli analisti la stanno ora anticipando per vedere un ulteriore rialzo nel prossimo futuro.

BITCOIN SI MANTIENE AL DI SOPRA DEI LIVELLI CRUCIALI DURANTE L’ULTIMO CALO

Al momento della scrittura, la Bitcoin è scambiata poco più dell’1% al suo attuale prezzo di 11.615 dollari, segnando una massiccia ripresa dai suoi minimi settimanali di 11.100 dollari che sono stati fissati solo pochi giorni fa.

La forte risposta della criptocurrency a questo calo dimostra che i tori hanno ancora il controllo sul trend di medio termine del crypto.

Questo è ulteriormente chiarito dalla capacità di BTC di superare la sua media mobile di 200 giorni dopo un breve calo al di sotto di essa.

„BTC torna sopra i 20DMA, postando quella che sembra una correzione in un trend molto rialzista“, ha spiegato un analista.

L’ULTIMA RIPRESA DELLA BTC FRANTUMA LA RESISTENZA DEI TASTI

La spinta di Bitcoin, che oggi ha superato gli 11.600 dollari, le ha anche permesso di infrangere una linea di tendenza chiave che in precedenza ne sopprimeva la crescita.

Un analista ha sottolineato questa rottura in un recente tweet, evidenziando la forza che questa linea di tendenza discendente ha espresso da quando BTC ha raggiunto un picco di 12.400 dollari qualche settimana fa.

Come le tendenze Bitcoin nei prossimi giorni dovrebbero offrire una visione significativa del suo trend a breve termine.

Etereum-baserad deFi-token YFI överträffar priset på Bitcoin för att bli världens dyraste krypto-tillgång

yEarn Finance token YFI har ersatt priset på kungen av cryptocurrencies för att bli världens mest värdefulla tillgång. YFI har fått så mycket som 46,27 procent under de senaste 24 timmarna för att vara värt mer än $ 15 000, enligt CoinMarketCap-data.

Priset på YFI har varit på en ostoppbar rally tack vare den växande efterfrågan på decentraliserad finansiering (DeFi).

Priset för en enda YFI är nu dyrare än en BTC

Alla ögon är på YEarn Finance token Bitcoin Code nyligen. Sedan utvecklaren Andre Cronje lanserades i slutet av juli har priset på altcoin höll på att drabbas av nya höga tider. Medan det började handla till cirka $ 32, har YFI sedan dess exploderat över 32.000% till det nuvarande priset på $ 15.457,57. Däremot är bitcoin värt cirka 11 863 dollar vid presstiden. Referens cryptocurrency halkade nyligen under $ 12K efter att ha samlat till bara blyg för $ 12 500.

Noterbart är yEarn Finance det allra första projektet som bygger på etherum blockchain för att ge total kontroll över förvaltningen till symbolinnehavarna. Dessutom har token ingen förgruva och ingen tilldelning till grundaren – vilket gör det nästan lika decentraliserat som bitcoin.

Priset på YFI har stigit i takt med det totala värdet som låsts i yEarn Finance-protokollet. För närvarande har minst 684,6 miljoner dollar låsts i DeFi-protokollet, avslöjar data från DeFi Pulse.

Men vad som är ännu mer intressant med YFI: s meteoriska uppgång är det faktum att teamet bakom projektet öppet har kallat det ett „helt värdelöst 0 försörjningstecken“ med „0 ekonomiskt värde“.

Vad kommer nästa gång för YFI?

Även om YFI: s pris nu ligger långt över 15 400 dollar, svävar det fortfarande på cirka 467 miljoner dollar. Huruvida priset på tillgången fortsätter att skjuta upp är någons gissning.

Vissa analytiker tror att tillgången kan bero på en korrigering på kort sikt, men andra förväntar sig att dess uppgång fortsätter – så att YFI kan bli ännu dyrare än två BTC .

Recente Bitcoin Rally duwt ‚Adressen in Winst‘ naar 93%.

Ongeveer 93% van alle bitcoin-adres saldi worden geschat in de zwarte, volgens Glassnode, aangezien bitcoin blijft handelen boven $11.000.

  • „Adressen in de winst“ meet saldi van activa die worden overgedragen in een portemonnee tegen een gemiddelde prijs die lager is dan de huidige prijs. Met andere woorden, hun waarde is gestegen, waardoor er winst wordt gemaakt, in ieder geval op papier.
  • De saldi in de winst zijn omhoog 29 procentpunten van het 72%-teken dat op 20 juli werd geregistreerd.
  • Meer dan 90% van de bitcoin-adressen waren het laatst in winst door Juli en Augustus 2019 toen de bitcoin rond $11.500, een lokale bovenkant voor de belangrijke cryptocurrency handelde.
  • De hoogte van 11 maanden voor adressen met winstoogmerk komt amid de verzameling van de bitcoin aan $11.400 en volgt regelmatige accumulatie op lange termijn door investeerders aan lagere prijzen, met minder dan 40% van alle bitcoins die in het verleden het jaar zijn bewogen.
  • Een hoog percentage adressen ,,in winst“ verhoogt de waarschijnlijkheid van investeerders die die bitcoins verkopen om hun winst, bovengenoemde Josh Olszewicz, cryptocurrency handelaar bij het Kapitaal van de Techemie te realiseren. Dat betekent niet dat de prijs niet zal blijven waarderen, voegde hij eraan toe.

Graustufen enthüllt massive Investitionen in Krypto-Fonds

Graustufen enthüllt massive Investitionen in Krypto-Fonds im Jahr 2020

Heute sieht der Krypto-Markt ziemlich gemischt aus mit dem Handel von Bitcoin im grünen Bereich. Zum Zeitpunkt des Verfassens dieses Artikels liegt der BTC-Preis bei 9.174,03 $.

Es wurde soeben bekannt, dass der digitale Vermögensverwalter Grayscale sagte, dass die Zuflüsse in die BTC und weitere Krypto-Investmentprodukte laut Bitcoin Revolution im zweiten Quartal 2020 905,8 Millionen Dollar erreichten, was das Gesamtkapital in der ersten Jahreshälfte auf 1,4 Milliarden Dollar brachte.
Der Bericht von Grayscale ist erschienen

Laut dem letzten Bericht sagt die Firma, dass 84% der Investitionen von institutionellen Anlegern, hauptsächlich Hedge-Fonds, getätigt werden.

Es hat sich auch gezeigt, dass von den zurückkehrenden institutionellen Anlegern 81% in mehrere Produkte investiert sind.

„Zum ersten Mal haben die Zuflüsse in Graustufenprodukte über einen Zeitraum von 6 Monaten die Schwelle von 1 Milliarde Dollar überschritten, was trotz eines von wirtschaftlicher Unsicherheit geprägten Umfelds eine anhaltende Nachfrage nach digitalen Anlagen zeigt“, so der Bericht.

Außerdem sagte das Unternehmen, dass sein Grayscale Bitcoin Trust mit Zuflüssen von 751,1 Millionen US-Dollar im letzten Quartal, wie von der Tageszeitung Daily Hodl berichtet, bei den Investitionsanforderungen führend sei.

Grayscale wies auch darauf hin, dass nach der Halbierung von Bitcoin, die bereits laut Bitcoin Revolution im Mai stattfand, die Zuflüsse an den Grayscale Bitcoin Trust die Zahl der neu geförderten BTC im gleichen Zeitraum überstiegen.

Bitcoin-Preisprognosen

Kürzlich wurde enthüllt, dass Bitcoin bald 9.400 Dollar zurückfordern muss, um die Bären fernhalten zu können.

Der Analyst von Cointelegraph Markets, filbfilb, warnte, dass die Situation, mit der Bitcoin konfrontiert ist, schnell zu einem „make or break“ werde.

Die BTC Bulls müssen 9400 Dollar schnellstens zurückfordern.

Jetzt zum Ende der Konsolidierungs-/Kompressionsphase zu kommen… dies unterhalb der Mitte der Bänder zu tun, ist normalerweise kein gutes Zeichen.

Fordern Sie dieses Niveau zurück und überdenken Sie gerne Ihre pessimistische Ausrichtung. pic.twitter.com/KGmxeVmp8o

– f i l ₿ f i l ₿ (@filbfilb) 16. Juli 2020

Nach der Mai-Halbierung gab es alle möglichen bullishen Vorhersagen über den Preis von Bitcoin.

Un député sud-coréen fait une offre pour imposer une taxe sur les gains en capital à la cryptographie

Un député sud-coréen influent a présenté un projet de loi d’initiative parlementaire qui verrait la crypto-imposition en vertu des lois nationales sur l’impôt sur les gains en capital.

Yang a également envoyé une copie de ses propositions au plus haut régulateur financier du pays, la Financial Services Commission

Per Jose Ilbo, Yang Kyung-sook, député du parti démocrate au pouvoir et membre de la commission de la planification et des finances de l’Assemblée nationale, a déclaré qu’elle avait présenté un projet de loi qui verrait le code fiscal du pays révisé – forçant les commerçants et les salariés de la crypto-monnaie de payer des impôts sur leurs bénéfices cryptographiques.

Yang a déclaré que d’autres pays – comme le Japon et les États-Unis – avaient déjà mis en place une réglementation fiscale sur les gains en capital liés à la cryptographie, et affirme qu’il est grand temps que Séoul emboîte le pas.

Dans ses pièces justificatives, Bitcoin Up a noté que des dizaines de milliers de transactions étaient effectuées chaque année sur les quatre plus grands échanges cryptographiques du pays. Yang a également affirmé que la valeur cumulée de toutes les transactions effectuées sur les principaux échanges de crypto-monnaies au cours de la période de 2015 à mai 2020 était de 1,8 billion USD.

Yang a ajouté qu’au cours de la même période, une moyenne de 780 000 transactions par jour ont été effectuées sur les plates-formes – le fisc n’étant apparemment au courant d’aucune ampleur de cette activité

Le député a également déclaré que la loi devrait s’appliquer non seulement aux résidents de Corée du Sud, mais également aux Sud-Coréens vivant à l’étranger et exerçant des activités liées à la cryptographie ou effectuant des transactions cryptographiques.